Back
Expert Articles
Package of practices for papaya production

Papaya is a popular fruit famous for its high nutritive and medicinal values. It comes earlier in bearing than any other fruit crop, produces fruits in less than a year and the production of fruits is quite high per unit area.

Soil and climate

Soil and climate

undefined

It is a tropical fruit and grows well in regions where summer temperature ranges from 35°C - 38°C. Tolerates frost and comes up to an elevation of 1200 m above mean sea level. Well drained soils of uniform texture are highly preferable to avoid collar rot disease.

undefined
undefined

Planting and Season:- Papaya can be cultivated in below seasons In India.

➥ Spring season (February – March)

➥ Monsoon season (June-July)

➥ Autumn season (October-November)

Papaya Varieties & Propagation

Papaya Varieties & Propagation

The best varieties under cultivation are Taiwan 786, Pusa nanha, 15 number, Red chili, Green berry, Ice berry, Raspberry, Meriwala. Commercially the papaya is propagated by seeds. The tissue culture technique is limited to research laboratories only. The seeds lose viability in a short period and therefore the seeds should not be stored for more than a season.

undefined
undefined

Spacing

Spacing

A spacing of 1.8 x 1.8 m. is normally followed. However higher density cultivation with spacing of 1.5 x 1.5 m./ha enhances the returns to the farmer and is recommended.

undefined
undefined

Special Horticultural practices

Special Horticultural practices

Initially planting can be done with 3 to 4 seedlings at one place and while removing extra plants and keep one plant per pit while doing so 10 percent male plants are kept in female plant population to have pollination and to improve the fruit.

undefined
undefined

Interculturing

Interculturing

This operation is mainly done to remove the weeds during the early period of growth, weeding and hoeing in between rows also favour better aeration to root zone. Some times pre-emerging weed killer can also be used.

undefined
undefined

Flowering

Flowering

Papaya plants or trees may be categorized to male, female or hermaphrodite trees based on type of flowers they produce.The tree’s type or gender, the flowers and fruit (if found) vary in appearance, function and size. Typically Papaya plants gender may change depending on the temperature during the developmental stages.

undefined
undefined
undefined
undefined

Irrigation

Irrigation

For better growth, production and quality, the optimum soil moisture is maintained by irrigating the crop judiciously. Irrigation interval well depend on season, crop growth and soil type. In no case, water should be allowed to stagnate causing root and stem rot. Drip system of irrigation is beneficial and the actual quantity of water to be given per plant per day should be worked out critically.

undefined
undefined

Application of manures and fertilizers

Application of manures and fertilizers

The dose of NPK at the rate of 200 kg each per acre, along with 8-10 tones of FYM 20 to 40 kg of micronutrients and seaweed extract granules.

Insect Pests & Disease

Insect Pests & Disease

Mite

Mite

Mites suck the sap of the leaves and yellowish spots appear, on the dorsal side of the infested leaves which finally dry up and fall off prematurely.

undefined
undefined

Mealybug

Mealybug

Mealybugs feed by inserting long sucking mouthparts styles into plants and drawing sap out of the tissue. Higher rate of infestations causes more damage and plant growth is reduced and fruit quality will poor.

undefined
undefined

Whiteflies

Whiteflies

Whiteflies are a common pest of papaya and are destructive/active during the dry season. They suck the cell sap and are seen clustering between the veins on the ventral surface of the leaves. The leaves become yellowish, wrinkle, and curl downwards. They also act as vectors in transmitting the virus.

undefined
undefined

Damping-off

Damping-off

Damping-off disease is caused by infections and as well as more moisture and less moisture. More moisture also supports fungal and other pathogens. Both pre-emergent and post-emergent symptoms are common.

undefined
undefined

Papaya Leaf Spot

Papaya Leaf Spot

Leaf spot disease is common among fungal infections. The disease is more severe in cooler temperatures and rainy months. The leaf spots are more common on older leaves and leaves turn yellow, untidy and flower dropping is observed on the respective petioles of the infected leaves.

undefined
undefined

Papaya ring Spot

Papaya ring Spot

Top leaves begin to have yellow mosaic in the leaf blade and green oily streaks appear on the stem and petiole of younger leaves. These ring spots appear on flowers and fruits. Can cause production loss between 5-100% depending on the age in which the plant is affected. The disease is said to be transmitted from plant to plant by aphids.

undefined
undefined
undefined
undefined

Papaya leaf curl

Papaya leaf curl

It’s causal organism is tobacco leaf curl virus. The leaves are severely affected and show symptoms of curling, crinkling, and distortion of leaves accompanied by vein clearing and reduction in leaf size.The affected plants either do not flower or bear a few fruits only.

undefined
undefined

Tip :- Control insect and disease use recommended insecticides and fungicides. For control Powdery Mildew use Roko Thiophanate Methyl 70%WP.

Harvesting & Yield

Harvesting & Yield

Harvesting generally starts 9 to 10 months after sowing. Mature fruits are harvested when they show streaks of yellow coloration. Since papaya trees are not very tall, handpicking is employed. Yield in papaya varies from about 25 kg/plant in some varieties like 75 - 100 kg/plant.

undefined
undefined

Thank you for reading this article, we hope you clicked on the ♡ icon to like the article and also do share it with your friends and family now!

Download Our Mobile App

Farm on-the-go: Access real-time market data, anytime, anywhere with our app. Also available in your language.

google play button